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The international Community and the DP

 

Countries executing juveniles:
(SINCE 1990)

Iran
Yemen
Nigeria
Pakistan
Saudi Arabia
USA*
 *  USA kills more juveniles than the other countries put together
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR): "Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age ..." (Article 6(5))

 Reservations the US Senate placed on the ICCR:

        (2) That the United States reserves the right, subject
        to its Constitutional constrains, to impose capital
        punishment on any person (other than a pregnant woman)  duly convicted under existing or future laws permitting the imposition of capital punishment, including such punishment for crimes committed by persons below
        eighteen years of age.

        (3) That the United States considers itself bound by
        article 7 to the extent that `cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment' means the cruel and unusual treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth,  and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.


Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC): "Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age..." (Article 37(a))

American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR): "Capital punishment shall not be imposed upon persons who, at the time the crime was committed, were under 18 years of age..." (Article 4(5))

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 (Fourth Geneva Convention): "In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence." (Article 68)

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Additional Protocol I): "The death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict shall not be executed on persons who had not attained the age of eighteen years at the time the offence was committed." (Article 77(5))

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Additional Protocol II): "The death penalty shall not be pronounced on persons who were under the age of eighteen years at the time of the offence ..." (Article 6(4))

Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penalty (UN Economic and Social Council resolution 1984/50, adopted on 25 May 1984 and endorsed by the UN General Assembly in resolution 39/118, adopted without a vote on 14 December 1984): "Persons below 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime shall not be sentenced to death..."

Juveniles and the death penalty: Executions worldwide since 1990

USA: Open letter from Amnesty International to the US Congress on pending juvenile justice legislation

USA: Betraying the Young: Children in the US justice system

United States of America: Robert Anthony Carter - Juvenile offender scheduled to be executed in Texas

The Death penalty: Facts and figures on the death penalty (April 1998)

USA: On the wrong side of history: Children and the death penalty in the USA

USA: Open letter from Amnesty International to all Ambassadors ... concerning the imminent execution of Sean Sellers in the USA

160 children have been sentenced to death in the U.S. since 1973. Most often the US kills children of color and 2 out of 3 children sent to death row are people of color.

As of June 2000 there were 74 juveniles on USA death rows: 35% of them were in Texas.

Taiwan: Concern at death of juvenile detainee

Australia: Juvenile aboriginal detention a key human rights concern

Pakistan: Juveniles sentenced to death

Pakistan: Juveniles sentenced to death

Worldwide Appeals: October 2000

The youngest person executed since WWII in the US was George Stinney, a 14 year-old black boy who was so small his mask fell off while he was being electrocuted by the state of South Carolina.
There is a constant death row population for juvenile offenders in the US. This happens because the number of new death sentences each year is roughly equal to the combination of death sentence reversals plus executions for juvenile offenders. AI: The United States of America

The Juvenile Death Penalty Today: Death Sentences and Executions for Juvenile Crimes January 1973-June 1999"

National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty about juveniles

ABA: Letters about Juvenile Death Penalty

  • The Federal Government has imposed the death penalty against American Indian children for crimes they committed as young as 10-years-old.

  • Of the nine girls executed in US history, 8 were Black and 1 was American Indian. 

  • In 1996, Mississippi prosecutors sought the death penalty for juveniles as young as 13 years of age.

  • The US Supreme Court has ruled that the execution of children as young as 16 is not "cruel and unusual" punishment. It has yet to make a definitive statement about children under 16.

 

Minimum age to get the DP in USA
Age Sixteen Age Seventeen Age Eighteen
Alabama Florida California
Arizona Georgia Colorado
Arkansas N. Hampshire Connecticut
Delaware N. Carolina Illinois
Idaho Texas Kansas
Indiana   Maryland
Kentucky   Montana
Louisiana   Nebraska
Mississippi   New Jersey
Missouri   N. Mexico
Nevada   New York
Oklahoma   Ohio
Pennsylvania   Oregon
S. Carolina   Tennessee
S. Dakota   Washington
Utah   Federal govmnt
Virginia    
Wyoming    


Texas Juvenile Death Row Inmates

Alvarado, StevenBrian : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 25 (DOB: 8-11-74); robberies and murder of adult Latino male and adult Latina female in El Paso on 9-22-91; sentenced on 10-5-93.

Arroyo, Randy: Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 20 (DOB: 10-31-79); kidnapping and murder of Latino male age 39 on 3-11-97 in San Antonio; sentenced on 3-6-98.

Arthur, Mark Sam : White male; age 17 at crime and now age 20 (DOB: 8-1-79); murder of Latino male age 41 in Harris County on 12-21-96; sentenced on 12-17-97

Barraza, Mauro Morris : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 28 (DOB: 5-5-72); murder of white female age 73 in Haltom City (Tarrant County) on 6-14-89; sentenced on 4-8-91.

Beazley, Napoleon : Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 8-5-76); robbery and murder of white male age 63 in Dallas (Dallas County) on 4-19-94; sentenced on 3-21-95.

Bernal, Johnnie: Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 8-20-76); murder of white(?) male age 19 in Houston on 8-19-94; sentenced on 5-8-95.

Capetillo, Edward Brian : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 5-13-77 ); murder of white male age 19 and white female age 20 in Harris County on 1-16-95; sentenced 2-6-96.

Cobb, Raymond Levi: White male; age 17 at crime and now age 24 (DOB: 6-18-76); murder of white female age 23 and white female age 16 months in Huntsville on 12-27-93; sentenced on 2-27-97.

Dewberry, John Curtis: White male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 1-30-77); murder of white male age 57 in Beaumont (Jefferson County) on 12-25-94; sentenced on 11-21-96.

Dickins, Justin Wiley : White male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 7-28-76); murder in Randall County on 3-12-94; sentenced on 5-17-95.

Dixon, Anthony Jerome : Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 11-7-76); robbery and murder of white female age 34 in Houston (Harris County) on 5-15-94; sentenced on 2-8-95.

Guillen, Derek:  Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 19 (DOB: 10-20-80); robbery, rape and murder of female age 51 in Aempe on 3-26-98; sentenced on 6-1-99.

Johnson, Eddie C.:  Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 21 (DOB: 11-26-78); robbery and murder of white male age 42 in Fort Worth on 3-6-96; sentenced on 7-31-97.

Jones, Anzel Keon: Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 22 (DOB: 2-4-78); murder of black female age 49 in Grayson County on 5-2-95; sentenced on 6-4-96.

Jones, T.J.: Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 11-1-76); robbery and murder of elderly male in Gregg County on 2-2-94; sentenced on 12-16-94.

Little, Leo Gordon:  White male; age 17 at crime and now age 19 (DOB: 7-14-80); kidnapping, robbery and murder of Latino male age 22 in San Antonio on 1-22-98; sentenced on 3-5-99.

Lopez, Michael Anthony, Jr.:  Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 19 (DOB: 4-28-81); murder of male age 25 (deputy constable) in Harris County on 9-29-98; sentenced on 5-25-99.

Martinez, Miguel Angel : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 26 (DOB; 8-6-73); robberies and murders of white male age 33 and 2 Latino males (ages 14 & 22) in Laredo (Webb County) on 1-18-91; sentenced on 4-8-92.

Mitchell, Gerald Lee : Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 32 (DOB: 12-27-67); murder of white male adult in Harris County on 6-4-85; sentenced on 4-12-86.

Monterrubio, Jose Ignacio : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 23 (DOB: 8-6-76); rape and murder of Latino female age 17 in Brownsville (Cameron County) on 9-5-93; sentenced on 8-25-94.

Patterson, Toronto : Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 22 (DOB: 10-17-77); murder of black female age 3 (along with female age 6 and female age 25) in Dallas on 6-6-95; sentenced on 11-21-95.

Perez, Efrian : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 24 (DOB: 11-19-75); rape and murder of white female age 14 and Latino female age 16 in Houston (Harris County) on 6-24-93; sentenced on 9-22-94.

Soriano, Oswaldo Regaldo : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 25 (DOB: 1-26-75); robbery and murder of adult male in Amarillo on 11-17-92; sentenced on 5-4-94.

Villareal, Raul Omar : Latino male; age 17 at crime and now age 24 (DOB: 9-25-75); rape and murder of white female age 14 and Latino female age 16 in Houston (Harris County) on 6-24-93; sentenced on 9-22-94.

Williams, Bruce Lee:  Black male; age 17 at crime and now age 19 (DOB 12-16-81); car-jacking, rape and murder of Asian-American female age 24 in Dallas on 2-3-99; sentenced on 12-10-99.

Williams, Nanon McKewn : Black (?) male; age 17 at crime and now age 25 (DOB: 8-2- 74); murder of white male age 19 in Harris County on 5-4-92; sentenced on 9-22-95

 

 


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